Term Loan

           A term loan is a simply a loan that is given for a fixed duration of time and must be repaid in regular installments. These loans usually extended for a longer duration of time which may range from 1 year to 10. Some term loans may last for more than 10 years. Usually, the tenure for a term loan is decided at the time of loan application by the lending institution or bank. Rate of interest charged under these loans may be on a fixed or floating basis, which will vary with market fluctuations. Term loans are mostly used as small business loans but can also be
taken on an individual basis as well. 

         Term loans are Secured Loans. The asset that is purchased using the term loan amount, will serve as a primary security and other assets of the company will be serving as collateral security. The loan has to be repaid within the fixed term regardless of the firm’s financial situation. The interest rate on the loan is charged after evaluating the credit risk of the proposal, the loan amount and tenure for which the loan is taken. The interest rate will be subject to a minimum lending rate. The rate is negotiated between borrowers and lenders at the time of distributing the loan. The term loan’s maturity lies between 5 -10 years. The repayment of the loan is made in installments. The tenure can be rescheduled to help borrowers deal with the financial emergencies. The lender will ask the borrower not to raise additional loans and to repay the existing loans and maintain a minimum asset base. Term loans can be converted into equity according to the terms and conditions that have been laid out by the lender. Financial institutions impose a penalty on the defaults. Commitment fee is charged on the unutilized loan amount. The principal loan amount is to be repaid after the initial grace period of 1 – 2 years. Commercial banks’ term loan is repayable in equal quarterly installments whereas financial institutions’ term loan
is repayable in equal semi-annual installments. Servicing burden of the loan declines over time. The interest will be less and the principal repayment will remain constant.

        Term loans can be categorized based on their tenure into short-term loans and long-term loans. Term loans that are of a shorter duration, usually less than one year, are called short-term loans. Loan with duration of three or more years are classified as long-term loans.

 

Short Term Loans

        The term loans that have a repayment period of one year or less are usually called short-term loans. The interest rate for short-term loans is higher than that of other types of loans including long-term loans. In developed economies, many banks offer unsecured short-term loans known as payday loans for terms as small as three or four months. This concept, however, is yet to take off in India. However, certain banks do offer their credit card and existing loan customers an option to buy consumer electronics with loans that have extremely short terms like 3 or 6 months.

Short-term Loan Eligibility

The eligibility criteria vary from one bank to another as well as among various
loan types of loans. Even so, there are some general benchmarks that Indian
banks and financial institutions follow. Some of these are enlisted here.

  • The applicant must be between the ages of 21 to 60 years.
  • The applicant must have a regular source of income.
  • The applicant must be an Indian resident. 

Long Term Loans

        Long-term loans are the type of loans that are given out for longer repayment periods. The term loans that have loan tenure of 3 or more years are often considered as long-term loans in India. Globally, long-term loans generally refer to loans with tenures over 7 years. The maximum tenure for most commonly available long-term loans in India is 10 years. However, some of the most popular long-term loans from banks and financial institutions are home loans and mortgages. These have terms of up to 30 years.

Long-term Loan Eligibility: 

  • The applicant must be between the ages of 21 to 60 years.
  • The applicant must have a regular source of income.
  • The applicant must be an Indian resident.

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