Biofloc fish farming and Technology

Biofloc Technology and Fish Farming Subsidy is considered as new “blue revolution” since nutrients can be continuously recycled and reused in the culture medium, benefited by the minimum or zero-water exchange BFT is an environment friendly aquaculture technique based on in-situ microorganism production. Biofloc is the suspended growth in ponds/tanks which is the aggregates of living and dead particulate organic matter, phytoplankton, bacteria and grazers of the bacteria. – subsidy for fisheries

It is the utilization of microbial processes within the pond/tank itself to provide food resources for cultured organism while at the same time acts as a water treatment remedy

How Biofloc Technology works? 

  • Biofloc  system is a wastewater treatment which has gained vital importance as an approach in aquaculture. 
  • The principle of the technique is to maintain the higher C-N ratio by adding carbohydrate source and the water quality is improved through the production of high quality single cell microbial protein 
  • In such condition, heterotrophic microbial growth occurs which assimilates the nitrogenous waste that can be exploited by the cultured species as a feed and also works as bioreactor controlling of water quality.
  • Immobilization of toxic nitrogen species occurs more rapidly in biofloc because of the growth rate and microbial production per unit substrate of heterotrophs  are ten-times greater than that of the autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.
  • This technology is based on the principle of flocculation within the system

How to Prepare the Inoculum?

Step 1:  Take clean tub/can with 130 Litres of water and continue vigorous aeration

Step 2:  Add 20 Litres of pond water/RAS water (before filtration) + 30 gm of carbon source (Jagerry /Wheat flour /Tapioca flour) + 10 gm of probiotic (with Bacilus Sp., Aspergilus Sp. etc with a total concentration of 10×109 CFU/gm)

Technical Specifications- 100 m3 (7 Tanks)


Area for 7 tanks 200 m2
Biofloc Tank size 4 metre diameter and 1.5 meter height (1.20 m water depth)
Water holding capacity of each tank 15,000 Litres capacity
Water quality parameters Dissolved Oxygen-5mg/L, Temparature-26-34°C, pH-7.5 to 8, TDS-600ppm, Floc density-25-40 mg/l, Ammonia-0.5 ppm, Nitrite-0.3 ppm, Nitrate-150 ppm, Alkalinity-120-280 ppm
Tanks Made-up of Tarpaulin/Fibre/HDPE
Stocking density 100 nos/m3 (1000 no.s per 15,000 litres tank – depending on species )
Species cultured GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Survival (%) 80
Type of feed to be used floating pellet feed
% of feed 2-3% per Average Body weight
Feeding frequency 4 times early stage, later 2 times per day
FCR 1:1.2
Duration of culture 6 months
Size/weight of the species(gm) 500 gm average weight
No. of crops per year 2
Production 4.2 Tonnes per crop (600kg per tank per crop)
Farm gate price(Rs) 130/- kg fish
Capital cost 6.00 Lakhs
Total project cost 7.5 lakh

Biofloc  Scheme  under  PMMSY

An estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crore for a period of 5 years from financial year (FY) 2020-21 to FY 2024-25 in all States/Union Territories.


Central Sector Scheme:  individual/group activities are undertaken by the entities of central government including NFDB, the central assistance will be up to 40% of the unit/project cost for General category and 60% for SC/ST/Women category.

Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)  : North Eastern & Himalayan States: 90% Central share and 10% State share. Other States: 60% Central share and 40% State share.

Beneficiary oriented sub-components and activities Sub-component and activities Unit Unit cost (Rs. Lakhs)  
Development of inland fisheries and aquaculture
1. Construction of biofloc ponds for brackish water/saline/alkaline areas including inputs of rs.8 lakhs/ha 0.1 ha 18.00  
2. Construction of biofloc ponds for freshwater areas including inputs of rs.4 lakhs/ha 0.1 ha 14.00  
Technology infusion and adaptation
1. Biofloc (50 tanks of 4m dia and 1.5 high) culture system. (No) 50.00 120 5. (No) 50.00 120
2. Biofloc culture system (No) 25.00 120
3. Biofloc (7 tanks of 4m dia and 1.5 high) culture system (No) 7.50 121

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